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焦磷酸盐电镀中正磷酸盐的影响及控制!
来源:http://www.jnjrh.com 日期:2019-04-11 发布人:admin
  1、正磷酸根离子对焦磷酸盐镀液极化行为的影响
  1. The effect of orthophosphate ions on the polarization behavior of pyrophosphate bath
  为在高质量焦磷酸盐镀液中参加正磷酸根离子的极化曲线
  In order to participate in the polarization curve of orthophosphate ion in high quality pyrophosphate plating bath
  显现正磷酸根离子对镀液的极化行为有很大影响,当电流密度在10-20mA cm-2左右时,随着正磷酸根离子含量的增加,在相同的电流密度下,阴极电位负移,因而在实践电镀中将致使槽电压升高,能耗增大;同时极化曲线在强极化区的塔菲尔斜率有稍微降低,影响镀液的络合才能。
  When the current density is about 10-20 mA cm-2, the cathodic potential shifts negatively with the increase of the positive phosphate ion content at the same current density, which will increase the cell voltage and energy consumption in practical electroplating. At the same time, the Tafel slope of the polarization curve in the strong polarization region decreases slightly, affecting the plating solution. The ability of complexation.
  2、正磷酸盐产生的缘由
  2. Reasons for the formation of orthophosphate
  镀液中的正磷酸盐来源可分红两局部:一局部在焦磷酸钾消费过程中产生,采用不同的消费工艺,消费技术、参数,消费设备消费的焦磷酸钾,内含正磷酸盐的含量差别宏大(而国内对焦磷酸钾的检测规范HG/T3591-1999是不能辨别焦磷酸主含量及正磷酸盐、三聚磷酸盐、三偏磷酸盐、多聚磷酸盐等含量)。另一局部是在电镀液中焦磷酸根发作水解反响生成正磷酸根而成。水解过程如下:
  The source of orthophosphate in plating bath can be divided into two parts: one part is produced in the process of consumption of potassium pyrophosphate, and the content of orthophosphate in potassium pyrophosphate consumed by different consuming processes, consuming technology and parameters, consuming equipment is greatly different (but the domestic standard HG/T3591-1999 for the determination of potassium pyrophosphate is unable to distinguish the main content of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and triphosphate. The contents of trimetaphosphate, polyphosphate, etc. The other part is formed by the reaction of pyrophosphate hydrolysis to orthophosphate in electroplating bath. The hydrolysis process is as follows:
  K4P2O7+H2O==2 K2HPO4,HPO42-+H+== H2PO4-,H2PO4-+H+== H3PO4。
  K4P2O7+H2O==2 K2HPO4, HPO42-+H+== H2PO4-, H2PO4-+H+== H3PO4.
  形成焦磷酸根水解的缘由也有两个:一个缘由是电镀液的pH发作变化,在酸性条件下加速焦磷酸盐水解成正磷酸盐,另一个缘由是在焦磷酸钾聚合过程中由于消费工艺,消费技术、参数,消费设备的不同,消费的焦磷酸钾的空间构造会有差别,这种差别会影响焦磷酸钾的水解速率,同时会对焦磷酸钾的络合才能产生宏大影响。
  There are also two reasons for the formation of pyrophosphate hydrolysis: one is the change of pH in plating solution, accelerating the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to orthophosphate under acidic conditions, the other is that the spatial structure of potassium pyrophosphate consumed will be different due to the different consumption technology, parameters and equipment during the process of potassium pyrophosphate polymerization, which will affect pyrophosphate. The hydrolysis rate of potassium pyrophosphate has a great influence on the complexation of potassium pyrophosphate.
  3、正磷酸盐的控制
  3. Control of orthophosphate
  ① 选择正磷酸盐含量低的焦磷酸钾,在对焦磷酸钾产质量量停止检测时应采用离子交流树脂法,这种检测可检定焦磷酸钾(主含量)及内含的正磷酸盐、三聚磷酸盐、三偏磷酸盐、多聚磷酸盐等含量。
  (1) Ion exchange resin method should be used to detect the production and quality of potassium pyrophosphate when selecting potassium pyrophosphate with low orthophosphate content. This method can detect the contents of potassium pyrophosphate (main content) and orthophosphate, triphosphate, trimetaphosphate and polyphosphate.
  例:美国化学技术公司制定的ACTI2156-2002规范(现已成为中国行业规范)规则了消费的焦磷酸钾必需用该检测办法测定焦磷酸钾(主含量)及内含的正磷酸盐、三聚磷酸盐、三偏磷酸盐、多聚磷酸盐等含量。正磷酸盐的含量被控制在0.1%以内。
氨基磺酸
  Example: The ACTI2156-2002 specification formulated by American Chemical Technology Company (which has now become the industry standard of China) stipulates that the consumption of potassium pyrophosphate must be determined by this method for potassium pyrophosphate (main content) and the contents of orthophosphate, triphosphate, trimetaphosphate and polyphosphate. The content of orthophosphate was controlled within 0.1%.
  ②选择控制焦磷酸钾聚合先进的技术并具备先进消费工艺、设备的企业所消费的产品。产品空间构造完好并且优良的络合才能(CAI),降低焦磷酸钾的水解速率。
  (2) Choose products consumed by enterprises with advanced technology and equipment for controlling potassium pyrophosphate polymerization. The product space is well constructed and excellent complexation ability (CAI) can reduce the hydrolysis rate of potassium pyrophosphate.
  CAI测试办法如下:
  The CAI test methods are as follows:
  称量1.000g焦磷酸钾用蒸馏水溶解后定容至100ml,配成1%的溶液100ml,往100ml溶液里滴加1%硝酸银溶液,搅拌至产生的白色沉淀不能完整被络合止,记载滴加1%硝酸银溶液的量(ml)即为焦磷酸钾的络合才能指数(CAI),CAI≥2.5ml才是质量优秀的焦磷酸钾。美国化学技术公司消费的焦磷酸钾的CAI的典型值是3.0ml。
  After dissolving 1.000g potassium pyrophosphate in distilled water, the volume of potassium pyrophosphate is 100 ml, and 1% silver nitrate solution is added into 100 ml solution. The white precipitation can not be completely complexed until stirred. The amount of 1% silver nitrate solution (ml) is recorded as the complexation ability index of potassium pyrophosphate (CAI). The quality of potassium pyrophosphate is excellent only when CAI is more than 2.5ml. The typical CAI value of potassium pyrophosphate consumed by American Chemical Technology Company is 3.0ml.
  ③坚持电镀液pH值的稳定:焦磷酸盐电镀有预镀和电镀两步。在预镀时pH为10.5-11.5,电镀时pH值控制在8.7-9.0,如能较好的将pH值控制在此范围,高质量焦钾水解的速率很小,ACTI焦磷酸钾能在366天内坚持稳定。
  (3) Adhere to the stability of pH value of plating bath: pyrophosphate plating has two steps: pre-plating and electroplating. The pre-plating pH is 10.5-11.5, and the electroplating pH is 8.7-9.0. If the pH value is better controlled in this range, the hydrolysis rate of high quality potassium pyrophosphate is very small, and ACTI potassium pyrophosphate can keep stable within 366 days.