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常用防腐剂的种类有哪些?
来源:http://www.jnjrh.com 日期:2019-04-09 发布人:admin
防腐剂按来源分,有化学防腐剂和天然防腐剂 2 大类。化学防腐剂又分为有机防腐剂与无机防腐剂。前者主要包括苯甲酸、山梨酸等,后者主要包括亚硫酸盐和亚硝酸盐等。天然防腐剂,通常是从动物、植物和微生物的代谢产物中提取的,如乳酸链球菌素等。
  Preservatives can be classified into chemical and natural preservatives according to their sources. Chemical preservatives are divided into organic preservatives and inorganic preservatives. The former mainly includes benzoic acid and sorbic acid, while the latter mainly includes sulfite and nitrite. Natural preservatives are usually extracted from metabolites of animals, plants and microorganisms, such as Streptococcus lactis.
  苯甲酸及其钠盐是目前我国食品加工业中最常用的防腐剂之一,主要用于饮料等液体食品(如:汽水、果汁、酱油、罐头、酒类等)的防腐。苯甲酸又名安息香酸,分子式 C7H6O2。 苯甲酸为一元芳香羧酸。苯甲酸亲油性大,易透过细胞膜,进入细胞体内,从而干扰了微生物细胞膜的通透性,抑制细胞膜对氨基酸的吸收。进入细胞体内的苯甲酸分子,电离酸化细胞内的碱性物质,并能抑制细胞呼吸酶系的活性,对乙酰辅酶A 缩合反应有很强的阻止作用,从而起到对食品的防腐作用。苯甲酸在偏酸性的环境中具有广泛的抗菌谱,其对细菌的抑制力较强,对酵母、霉菌抑制力较弱,防腐的最适pH 值为 2.5~4.0。
氨基磺酸
  Benzoic acid and its sodium salt are currently one of the most commonly used preservatives in food processing industry in China. They are mainly used for the preservation of liquid foods such as beverages (such as soda, juice, soy sauce, canned food, wine, etc.). Benzoic acid, also known as benzoic acid, molecular formula C7H6O2. Benzoic acid is a monoaromatic carboxylic acid. Benzoic acid is lipophilic and easy to penetrate the cell membrane and enter the cell body, thus interfering with the permeability of microbial cell membrane and inhibiting the absorption of amino acids by cell membrane. Benzoic acid molecules entering cells can ionize and acidify alkaline substances in cells, inhibit the activity of cell respiratory enzymes, and have a strong inhibitory effect on acetyl coenzyme A condensation reaction, thus playing a role in food preservation. Benzoic acid has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity in acidic environment. It has strong inhibition on bacteria, weak inhibition on yeasts and fungi. The optimum pH value for antisepsis is 2.5-4.0.
  因苯甲酸难溶于水,实际应用中常以苯甲酸钠代替之。苯甲酸钠只有在游离出苯甲酸的条件下才能发挥防腐作用,在较强酸性的食品中,苯甲酸钠的防腐效果好。苯甲酸及其钠盐是比较安全的食品化学防腐剂,按食品添加剂使用卫生标准使用,目前还未发现任何有毒副作用。
  Because benzoic acid is insoluble in water, sodium benzoate is often used instead of benzoic acid in practical application. Sodium benzoate can only play an anti-corrosion role in the condition of free benzoic acid. Sodium benzoate has good anti-corrosion effect in foods with strong acidity. Benzoic acid and its sodium salts are relatively safe food chemical preservatives. They are used according to the hygienic standards of food additives. At present, no toxic side effects have been found.
相关标签:氨基磺酸